Belgian Art Song Database

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This section provides information about Belgium's history. It highlights early composers that had their education in Paris or spent the majority of their time in France, César Franck (1822-1890), François Auguste Gevaert (1828-1908), Jean-Théodore Radoux (1835 - 1911). Following this, two art song composers attracted to Germany will be presented, Adolphe Samuel (1824-1898) and Eduard Lassen (1830-1904).

Historical Introduction

Belgium covers an area of 30,528 square kilometers (about the size of the State of Maryland in the US) and has about 11 million inhabitants, which makes it a highly populated country. Germanic and Latin culture meet in Belgium. It has three linguistic groups. The Dutch speaking Flemish population makes up about 56% of the population. The French speaking Walloon population represents 38% and the German speaking people makes up only 1% of the country's population.

 Source: http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/BELGCUL.html 

Before gaining its independence in 1830, Belgium was successively under Spanish, French, and Dutch rule. The first King, Leopold I, was crowned in 1831 and the country became a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. Soon after Belgium's independence the industrial revolution started. Between the years 1830 and 1910 mining, steel-making, and the textile industry made Belgium one of the top three most industrialized nations in the world. The Walloon region, in particular the cities of Liège and Charleroi, was the richest and most prosperous one. The French language was the only official language in Belgium at that time, including the language of all secondary and higher education. The unevenly distributed wealth and the discrimination of the Dutch language lead to a silent Flemish uprising against the French-speaking domination. In 1878 the Dutch language was allowed to be used for official purposes in Flanders but French remained the only official language. The Flemings had to wait until 1919 before they had their language officially recognized and it was only in 1930 that the first Flemish university was reopened. After WWI and through the Treaty of Versailles the counties of Eupen and Malmedy were annexed by Belgium. They are known today as the East Cantons and the language spoken there is German. In the early 1960s Belgium was divided into four linguistic areas, the Dutch speaking Flemish area, the French speaking Walloon area, the bilingual area of Brussels, and the German speaking east cantons. Today the country has a complex political structure of three regions (Flemish, Walloon, and Brussels) and three communities (Flemish, French speaking, and German speaking). These regions and communities are gaining more and more independence but remain under the national government and the King Leopold II.  

You will find more detailed information about Belgian history on the following websites:

http://www.belgium.be/en/about_belgium/country/history/

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2874.htm#history

http://www.geographia.com/belgium/bxhis01.htm 

History of Musical Institutions

Music schools were and still are very important hubs for composers and musicians in Belgium. Usually, composers were involved in music education as director or teachers at regular conservatories and royal conservatories. Very few could survive as free lance composers. College level institutions have the title of royal conservatories, while conservatories and music schools provide a general music education to children and adults.

Music schools were created well before Belgium became an independent country. The Royal Conservatory in Liege was created out of the ?École royale de musique et de chant? in 1830. Its first director was Louis Joseph Daussoigne-Méhul. A similar history underlies the creation of the Royal Conservatory in Mons and Brussels. The "École de musique de Mons" was created in 1820 and became a Royal Conservatory only in 1948, while the Brussels school of music developed into a Royal Conservatory in 1832. The first director of the Royal Conservatory in the capital city was François-Joseph Fétis. This conservatory has been divided into two schools in 1967: the Conservatoire Royal de Bruxelles with instruction in French and the Koninklijk Conservatorium Brussel with instruction in Flemish. The Royal Conservatory of Ghent was created in 1835 and its founding director was Martin Joseph Menga.

The history of the Royal Flemish Conservatory Antwerp started off in 1844 when the "École speciale de musique de la Ville d'Anvers" was created. In 1859 the counsel of the city of Antwerp took the decision to give it a Flemish name, "Stedelijke Muziekschool van Antwerpen." When, in 1867, Peter Benoit became the director of the school he requested as a condition to his acceptance that the school became an entirely Flemish institution. The Antwerpsche Vlaamsche Muziekschool was born. The school than became the center of the Flemish movement in Belgian music and in 1898 it was promoted to a Royal conservatory and became the first school to provide musical education in Flemish.          

Other noteworthy musical institutions are the Belgian Prix de Rome and the "Chapelle Musicalle Reine Elizabeth, opened in 1939." The former one is a pendant to the French Prix de Rome and was organized for the first time by the Royal Academy of Fine Arts Antwerp in 1832. Until 1864, the composers that took part in the competition had to write a cantata on a French poem. After 1864 they had the choice of a French or Dutch poem.

César Franck (Liège 1822 - Paris 1890)

Franck entered the Royal Conservatory in Liege in October 1830, shortly after Belgium became an independent country, to study piano and counterpoint. Between 1833 and 1835 he studied harmony with its director, Daussoigne. His father was very ambitious and organized a series of concerts for his son in Belgium in 1835 before moving to Paris with his family in the same year. Franck started his harmony and counterpoint studies in Paris with Reicha, teacher of Belioz, Liszt, and Gounod. In October 1837 he entered the Paris conservatory for piano and counterpoint lessons. In 1843, he embarked in a tour through Belgium as a virtuoso. It was in the summer of 1846 that Franck quit his parent's house and started to support himself with piano lessons, and teaching positions at public schools and religious institutions. He also became organist at the church of Notre Dame de Lorette a year later. At that same church, Frank would marry Félicité Saillot Desmousseaux in 1848. During the 1850's he worked successively as organist at the church St Jean-St François in the Marais and at the basilica of Ste Clotilde. The so-called bande à Franck started to come together during the 1860s. Under his pupils were Henry Duparc and Arthur Coquard. The Société Nationale de Musique was created in 1871 and shortly thereafter Franck became the new professor of organ at the Conservatory and applied for French citizenship. In 1872 Vincent d'Indy became Franck's organ student. The influence of Richard Wagner's Tristan and Isolde reached Franck in 1874. After that Franck was entering a period of extreme creativity that lasted until his death. His last pupil was the young Belgian composer Guillaume Lekeu. 

Art Songs (Non-Exhaustive List):

L'Entrée en loge (J.-F. Gail), 1840
Orphée dans les bois with orchestra (H. Benton), 1840
Agnès Sozel (P.-A. Vieilland), 1840
La Vendetta duo (A. de Pastout), ca. 1840
Souvenance (Chateaubriand); Mohr 70, 1842?3 
L'émir de Bengador (J. Méry); Mohr 72, 1842?3
Le sylphe voice and violoncello (A. Dumas père); Mohr 73, 1842?3 
Robin Gray (J.-P. de Florian); Mohr 74, 1842?3 
L'ange et l'enfant (J. Reboul); Mohr 75, 1846 
A cette terre, où l'on ploie sa tente (Hugo), 1847 
Hymne à la patrie with orchestra, 1848
Les trois exilés national song (B. Delfosse); Mohr 77, 1848 
Aimer (Méry); Mohr 76, 1849
Ninon (A. de Musset); Mohr 71, 1851
S'il est un charmant gazon (Hugo); Mohr 78, 2 versions c1855 & 1857
Roses et papillons (Hugo); Mohr 81, c1860 
Passez, passez toujours (Hugo); Mohr 82, 1860
Paris patriotic ode for Tenor and orch (?B. de L.?), 1870
Le mariage des roses (E. David); Mohr 80, 1871
Patria, patriotic ode with orchestra or piano (V. Hugo) 1871
Lied (L. Paté); Mohr 83, 1873
Le vase brisé (Sully-Prudhomme); Mohr 84, 1879
Nocturne (L. de Fourcaud); Mohr 85, 1884
Les cloches du soir (M. Desbordes-Valmore); Mohr 87, 1888
La procession with orch or piano (A. Brizeux); Mohr 88, 1888
Six duos pour soprano et alto; Mohr 89, 1888:
  1. L'ange gardien (?Franck)
  2. Aux petits enfants (A. Daudet)
  3. La Vierge à la crèche (Daudet)
  4. Les danses de Lormont (L. Desbordes-Valmore)
  5. Soleil (G. Ropartz)
  6. La chanson du vannier (A. Theuriet)
Information on Cesar Franck and his songs is readily available through many mediums and places. Popular places like you tube, amazon, and the Petrucci library offer a whole selection of scores and recordings. What follows are just some selected examples of scores and recordings. 

Scores:

Mélodies (for high or low voice) published by Enoch & Cie (2002) = Ave Maria (transcription); Lied; Le mariage de roses; Nocturne; Roses et Papillons; La vase brisé; S'il est un charmant gazon; L'Ange gardien (transcription); Aux petits enfants; La vierge à la créche; Les danses de Lormont 
Four songs for medium voice and piano Published by Masters Music Publications (2005): Le mariage des roses; Nocturne; La procession; L'ange et l'enfant
Six duos pour soprano et alto Published by Enoch & Cie and by Masters Music Publications
All Scores can also be found on the "Petrucci Library": http://imslp.org/wiki/Category:Franck,_C%C3%A9sar

Recordings:

Melodies: Hungaroton Classic CD (2006) Gabriela Létay Kiss (soprano), Adrienne Hauser (piano), Tibor Bogányi (violoncello). Content: Souvenance; Aimer; L'ange et l'enfant; La procession; S'il est un charmant gazon; Le vase brisé; Les cloches du soir; Le mariage des roses; Lied; Ninon; Nocturne; Passez! passez toujours!; Robin Gray; Roses and butterflies; The emir of Bengador; Le sylphe (with Cello)

Melodies: Mew CD (2006) Ann De Renais (Soprano), Guy Penson (Piano), Sébastien Walnier (Cello). Content:  Le Marriage des Roses, Roses et papillons; Ninon; Nocturne; Lied; Aimer; Robin Gray; Les cloches du soir; Le Sylphe; Passez, passez toujours; La  vase brisé; La procession; L'Émir de Bengador; S'il est un charmant gazon; Souvenance; L'ange et l'enfant

Adolphe Samuel (Liège 1824 - Ghent 1898)

Samuel was a Jewish born composer and music critic. He first studied painting and than music in Liège. In 1840 he and his family moved to Brussels where he studied piano, organ, harmony and composition at the Conservatory. Samuel played piano at the debut concert in Brussel of singer Pauline García performing with her brother-in-law and violinist, Charles de Bériot. He continued his studies with Mendelssohn in Leipzig, Meyerbeer in Berlin, and Ferdinand Hiller in Dresden thanks to the stipend he won with his cantata Vendetta at the Prix de Rome competition in 1845. He worked as  a professor of harmony at the Brussels Conservatory, met Berlioz in London in 1853 and created the Concerts populaires de musique classique in 1865. The programs of the concert series show his predilection for German music. Composers such as Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Weber, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Liszt and Wagner were presented to the public, but also the music of his colleagues Peter Benoit, François-Joseph Fétis, and Gustave Huberti.In 1871 he became director of the Ghent Conservatory. Samuel's compositions go from symphonies to cantatas and from chamber music over piano pieces to songs (His wife Bertha Emanuel was a singer). Towards the end of his life he mainly found inspiration in religious subjects. In 1895 the Jewish composer was baptized a Christian. Samuel was a cosmopolitan and well regarded by contemporary composers such as Berlioz and Wagner. Unfortunately, much of his music remains unpublished. His son, Eugene Samuel-Holeman (1866-1942), became a pianist and avant-garde composer.

Art Songs (Non-Exhaustive List):

Je pense à toi (Goethe), Paris: Paul Dupont
Huit lieder allemands; op. 54, Gand: Mme G. Beyer
  1. Liebster(Geibel)
  2. Du bist so still (Heine)
  3. Lebewohl(Wunderhorn)
  4. Waerst du bei mir (Richard Pohl)
  5. Stille dies Verlangen (Geibel)
  6. Nachtreise (Uhland)
  7. Ich hab im Traum geweinet (Heine)
  8. Alte Gechischte (Heine)
Alte Geschichte (Heine), Gand: Mme G. Beyer Succ. De V. Gevaert 
Deux Mélodies religieuses (Turquenty) unknown binding, 1866? 
Chansons de Printemps (A. van Hasselt) unknown binding, 1867?
5 mélodies; Rome: Max Eschig Publishing
80 solfèges melodiques; Rome: Editions Max Eschig, published in 1935

François-Auguste Gevaert (Huysse 1828 - Brussels 1908)

He was an organist, pianist, musicologist, teacher and composer. Although not considered an important composer he was well regarded by his peers and had a profound influence on musical life and education in Belgium. He entered the Ghent Conservatory as a child to study the piano with De Somere and harmony with Mengal and won the Belgian Prix de Rome with his cantata Le roi Lear in 1847. Because of his young age he was allowed to postpone his travels for 2 years, during which he composed 2 operas (Hugues de Zomerghem and La comédie à la ville). . From 1849 to 1852 he traveled through France, Spain, Italy and Germany and finally settled in Paris where he became involved with the opera. During the next ten years he would compose a series of operas, most of which were staged at the Opéra-Comique. In 1867 he was appointed music director at the Opéra. At the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War he returned to Belgium, where he became director of the Brussels Royal Conservatory. Under his influence, the Royal Conservatory grew into an important center of music education in Europe. Even music schools and other conservatories underwent important reforms through him. Gevaert composed mainly operas and cantatas, but also orchestral works and secular songs. The two cantatas "De Nationale Verjaardag" (van Duyse, 1855) and "Jacob van Artevelde" (Napoleon Destanberg, 1863) are Flemish cantatas in the style of Benoit. Gevaert never was part of a national movement though and only set Flemish texts from time to time. His theoretical writings were very influential and his "Traité général d?instrumentation" (1863) was translated in many languages. He was involved in historic and medieval music and published a collection of "Chansons du XVe siècle" in 1875.

Art Songs (Non-Exhaustive List):

Verzameling van oude Vlaemsche liederen; Ghent, 1854 and Brussels: A. Cranz
  1. Gelijk een roos ( van Ackere)
  2. Meiplantin: lied der XVIe eeuw
  3. uitwykelingslie: lied der XIIe eeuw
  4. Van de twee konings kinderen
  5. lied der XIVe eeuw
  6. Het looze visschertje: lied der XVIe eeuw
  7. De minnebode
  8. Het kwezelken 
De spinster: lied der XVIIIe eeuw
La bataille des Ésperons d'or (A. Clesse); Tournai: Demée, 1860
Le chant du régiment: hymne patriotique (Victor Wilder); Paris: Léon Grus, 1868
Aphrodite; Gent: Rogghe, 1873
Ik spreek van u zoo zelden; Gent: Vuylsteke, 1902
Vers L' Avenir: chant national pour voix d'homme (Antheunis); Brussels: A. Cranz
Un nouveau Lévite (high or low voice);
Brussels: A. Cranz

Eduard Lassen (Copenhagen 1830 - Weimar 1904)

Eduard Lassen was of Danish origin and mainly active in Germany. He studied piano and composition at the Brussels Conservatory. He won the Belgian Prix de Rome in 1851, which enabled him to tour Germany and Rome where he met Louis Spohr and Franz Liszt.In 1855 he returned to Brussels. Three years later, he was offered the position of music director at Weimar and succeeded Liszt as court music director. He stayed there until his retirement in 1895.

Art Songs (Non-Exhaustive List):

Acht Lieder; op. 4 (Text: August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben). Berlin: Schlesinger, 1860

  1. Lasst mich ruhen
  2. Armes Blümchen Du!
  3. In Liebeslust, in Sehnsuchtsqual
  4. Mein Lied
  5. Alles scheidet, liebes Herz
  6. Und die Lerchen singen wieder
  7. Wie oft schon
  8. O glücklich, wer ein Herz gefunden
6 Lieder von Peter Cornelius, op.5 (Leipzig, 1866)
Loese, Himmel, meine Seele published Peters, 1865
6 Lieder von Peter Cornelius; op.5. Leipzig, 1866
Fünf Lieder 2nd edition Weimar: Kühn, 1865 - also published in London by S. Lucas, Weber & Co in 1882 and in London by Stanley Lucas, Weber & Co in 1890 
  1. Ich wandle unter Blumen (Heine)
  2. Ich hatte einst ein schönes Vaterland (Heine)
  3. Mein Herz ist wie die dunkle Nacht (Geibel)
  4. Vöglein, wohin so schnell?(Geibel)
  5. Mit deinen blauen Augen (Heine)
Sechs Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte; op. 45. Breslau: Julius Hainauer, 1873
  1. Frühlingsgruss
  2. Im Herbst
  3. Ich fühle deinen
  4. Dornröschen (P. Hayse)
  5. Odem
  6. Spielmanns Lied
  7. Der Lenz (P. Cornelius)
Fünf Lieder mit Begleitung des Pianoforteop; op. 46. Breslau: Julius Hainauer, 1874
  1. Frühlingslied (E. Geibel)
  2. Im April (E. Geibel) 
  3. Si vous n'avez rien, à me dire (V. Hugo)
  4. Die Waldbrüter (Theodor Storm)
  5. Der Frühling und die Liebe (Hoffmann v. Fallersleben)
Sechs Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte; op. 48. Breslau, 1873
  1. Mein Liebchen wir sassen beisammen
  2. Ich hab im Traum geweinet
  3. Kornblumen flecht ich dir zum Kranz
  4. Vorsatz "Ich will dir's nimmer sagen
  5. Einsamkeit
  6. Wiegenlied der Jungfrau Maria
Germanensang (Old German Song) Words by F. Dahn. (English words by A. F. Schmall.); Op. 49. Cincinnati, etc: J. Church Co, 1901(Biblical songs)
Drei Duette für Sopran und Alt mit Begleitung des Pianoforte; op. 50. Dresden: Ries, 1890
  1. Hoffe nur (Carl Scriba)
  2. Der Frühling (Carl Gärtner)
  3. Die Dorflinden (Ernst Schleiden)
Sechs Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte; op. 52 Breslau, 1875
Fünf Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte; op. 54. London, 1875
Sechs Duette für Sopran und Alt mit Begleitung des Pianoforte. Op. 55 Breslau, 1875
  1. Der Geist des Herrn
  2. Morgenwandrung im Mondenschein (Friedrich Heinrich Oser)
  3. Liebesstationen (Titus Ulrich)
  4. Entfernung (L. von Thüna)
  5. Ueber ein Stündlein (Paul Heyse)
  6. Lerchensang (Friedrich Heinrich Oser)
Aus der Musik zu Goethes Faust: partl I and II; op. 57. Breslau: Hainauer, 1880
  1. Nr 57 Ihr guten Herr'n, ihr schönen Frauen - Der Schäfer putzte sich zum Tanz Gesang - Walzer aus der Musik zu Goethe's Faust
  2. Nr 59 Es war ein König in Thule - Lied für Alt
  3. Nr 60 Was machst du mir vor Liebchen's Thür
  4. Nr 61 Zum Sehen geboren, zum Schauen bestellt
Lieder und Gesänge,  op 58  
  1. Nr 1 Wieder möcht ich dir begegnen (Peter Cornelius)
  2. Nr 3 Du meiner Seele schönster Traum (Peter Cornelius) 
Sechs Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte, op. 59 (Gedichte von Robert Hamerling).  Breslau: Hainauer, 1880
  1. Tröst
  2. An die Vögel
  3. Die beiden Wolken
  4. Die Lerchen
  5. O trockne diese Thräne nicht
  6. Lass die Rose schlummern
Sechs Lieder von Fr. Bodenstedt: für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte; op. 60. Breslau: Julius Hainauer,1877
  1. Nun liegt die Welt im Traume
  2. Die Gletscher leuchten im Mondenlicht
  3. Hoch auf fliegt mein Herz
  4. Wenn ich dich seh' so lieb und hold
  5. Wenn der Frühling auf die Berge steigt
  6. Die helle Sonne leuchtet auf's weite Meer hernieder
Sechs Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte. op. 61 Eduard Lassen, Breslau, 1877
Nr. 4 Sommerabend (Bernhard Scholz)
Sechs Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte; op. 62. Breslau: Julius Hainauer, 1878
  1. Nähe des Geliebten (Goethe)
  2. Ich habe den Glauben verloren: (Rosa Lüdt)
  3. Sonntagsruhe (Ernst)
  4. Heimkehr (Strachwitz)
  5. Dein Auge ist mein Himmel (B. Scholz)
  6. Verlobung (Th. B. Aldrich)
Fünf Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte; op. 65  Breslau: Julius Hainauer, 1879
  1. Märzenblume (A. Träger)
  2. Wie durch die stille Mondesnacht (A. Träger)
  3. Schweigsamkeit (Geibel)
  4. Die Rosen von Jericho (Mehemed Ali Pascha)
  5. Abendglockenläuten (Rückert's Schwanengesang)
Sechs Lieder: für 1 Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte; op. 67. Breslau: Hainauer
Sechs Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte; op. 68. Breslau Hainauer, 1890
Sechs Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte; op. 71. Breslau: Hainauer, 1882
  1. Die grossen stillen Augen
  2. Sei stille!
  3. Ich seh' dich heut zum ersten Mal
  4. Mit den Sternen
  5. Mondmythus
  6. Des Woiewoden Tochter
Sechs Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte; op. 72. Breslau, 1881

Lieder und Gesänge mit Begleitung des Pianoforte; op. 74. Breslau, 1883 (Ophelia Lieder)

  1. Wie erkenn ich dein Treulieb
  2. Wein Bahrtuch weiss wie Bergesschnee
  3. Sein Bart war weiss wie Bergesschnee
  4. Sie trugen ihn barhaupt auf der Bahr
  5. Denn traut lieb Robin
  6. Auf morgen ist Sanct Valentinstag
  7. Und kommt er denn nimmer zurück? 
Sechs Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte; op. 75. Breslau, 1883
Sechs Lieder von E. von Wildenbruch für eine Singstimme mit Pianoforte; op. 79. Breslau; 1884 
  1. Nicht weinen
  2. Bitteres Gedenken
  3. Abendlied
  4. Ewige Liebe
  5. Liebespost
  6. Ständchen
Getrennte Liebe. Ein Lieder Cyclus für Mezzo-Sopran und Baryton mit Begleitung des Pianoforte (Text: Richard Pohl); Op. 80. Breslau, 1884 
  1. Abschied
  2. Allein
  3. Umsonst
  4. Wärst du bei mir
  5. Der Blumenstrauss
  6. Erwartung
  7. Heimkehr
  8. Wiedersehen
Sechs Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte; op. 81. Breslau: Hainauer, 1885
  1. März (M. Holm)
  2. Drei Bitten (E. Geibel)
  3. Der Morgen (Eichendorff)
  4. Mittagsruh (Eichendorff)
  5. Der Abend (Eichendorff)
  6. Die Nacht (Eichendorff)
Aus der Frühlingszeit (für eine Singstimme mit Pianoforte). Ein Liedercyclus von Fräulein O. v. Ahlefeldt-Dehn; op. 82. Breslau, 1885
Sechs Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Pianoforte; op. 83. Breslau, 1886
  1. Lied eines Mädchens (E. Geibel)
  2. Sehnsucht (J. Grosse)
  3. Verschwiegene Liebe (Eichendorff)
  4. Frühlingsgedränge (N. Lenau)
  5. Kleine Lieder (E. Schulze)
  6. Vom Strande (aus dem Spanischen von Eichendorff)
Sechs Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Pianoforte; op. 84. Breslau, 1886

  1. Mein Lieben (Hoffmann v. Fallersleben)
  2. Ein geistlich Abendlied (G. Kinkel)
  3. Herbstlied (L. Tieck)
  4. Trost der Nacht (G. Kinkel)
  5. Ueber Nacht (J. Sturm)
  6. Noch ist die blühende goldene Zeit (Roquette)
Sechs Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Pianoforte, op. 85. Breslau, Julius Hainauer
  1. Weisse Rose (Dahn)
  2. Ballade (Arndt)
  3. Allerseelen (Hermann von Gilm)
  4. Meeresabend (Strachwitz)
  5. An die Nacht (Bernays)
  6. Maienlied (Goethe)

Sechs Lieder: für 1 Tenorstimme mit Begl. d. Pianofortel op. 88. Breslau: Hainauer
Sechs Lieder mit Begleitung des Pianoforte (hohe stimme); op. 89. Breslau: Hainaue
Vier Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Pianoforte-Begleitung, op. 90: Ausgabe für Sopran oder Tenor, Eduard Lassen, Paris: Hamell
Sechs Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte, op. 92. Leipzig: Junne, 1900

6 Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Pianofortebegleitung; op. 93. Leipzig, Steingräber Verlag
  1. Mit Ahnungsschauer, O Natur (Groth)
  2. Mir war das Leben blass und schaal (Groth)
  3. Düftet die Lindenblüt (Groth)
  4. Es lebt kein König! (von Proells)
  5. Ritornell (von Proells)
  6. Barcarole (von Proells)

5 mélodies pour mezzo-soprano ou baryton avec accompagnement de piano (Text: Victor Wilder) Edition: Paris, Maison J. Maho - J . Hamelle - C.G. Röder at Leipzig
  1. Enivrement du Coeur
  2. J'avais Rêvé
  3. Les deux étoiles
  4. Message d'amour
  5. Avec tes yeux, mignonne
Song-album volume 1 and 2 (1883) New York: G. Schirmer nos. 41, 42: German and English words; some of the songs also have French words. (Volume 2 can be purchased by Nabu Public Domain Reprints)

  • Ah! 'tis a dream = Ich hatte einst ein schönes Vaterland = J'avais rêvé
  • My heart is like the silent night = Mein Herz ist wie die dunkle Nacht = Les deux étoiles
  • Thine eyes so blue = Mit deinen blauen Augen = Avec tes yeux, mignonne
  • At evening = Abendlandschaft
  • O were I you = O wär' ich du
  • Spring = Frühling
  • The old song = Das alte Lied
  • Spring greeting = Frühlingsgruss
  • In autumn = Im Herbst
  • I feel thy angel spirit = Ich fühle deinen Odem
  • Spring time = Der Lenz
  • In April = Im April
  • The fir-tree = Der Fichtenbaum
  • I wept one night while dreaming = Ich hab' im Traum geweinet
  • Resolution = Vorsatz
  • Greeting = Grüssen
  • Gypsy boy in the north = Zigeunerbub' im Norden
  • My device = Meine Devise. Once again = Wieder möcht' ich dir begegnen
  • Thou fairest vision of my soul = Du meiner Seele schönster Traum.
  • Lily blossom = Lilienblüthe.
  • Near thee = In deiner Nähe weil' ich noch
  • The poet = Der Sänger
  • The glaciers by moonlight = Die Gletscher leuchten im Mondenlicht
  • Thine image = Wenn ich dich seh'
  • When the spring-tide o'er the hills is seen = Wenn der Frühling auf die Berge steigt
  • The sun's bright beams = Die helle Sonne leuchtet. Summer evening
  • Sommerabend. I think of thee = Nähe des Geliebten
  • Sabbath rest = Sonntagsruhe
  • Pry thee, maiden = Sei nur ruhig, lieber Robin
  • My Lily = Meine Lilie
  • Ever with thee = Immer bei dir
  • Be thou still = Sei stille
  • Thy bright eyes = Die grossen, stillen Augen
  • Blue eyes = Blaue Augen
  • Lullaby = Schlummerlied
  • The nest = Das Nest
  • Cheerless morn = Trüber Morgen
  • Solitude = Ich weil' in tiefer Einsamkeit
  • Romance
  • Silence = Schweigsamkeit
Aus des Knaben Wunderhorn: alte Minneweisen und Volkslieder für eine Singstimme und Klavierbegleitung; Leipzig: Hug, 1903 Volksliedersammlungen; Troubadourlieder, Meister- und Minnesang bearbeitet bei Lassen 
  • Madchenkunde eines Fahrenden
  • Segnen der Kinder
  • Ritters Abschied
  • Ritters Treulieb
  • Jungbrunnen
  • Herzog Ulrich's Jagdlied
  • Zwei Wasser
  • Liebesklage
  • Drei Junfräulein
  • Verschneiter Weg
  • Der Herr von Falkenstein
  • Abschied von Innsbruck
  • Der Gutzgauch
  • Lindenlaub
  • Lieblich gesellet
  • Jägers Morgenbesuch

Scores:


Song Album (8 Lieder) for high voice and piano, German and English words, Huntsville, Texas Recital Publications, 1989 (reprint from New York : G. Schirmer, 1879). 
  1. Vöglein, wohin so schnell
  2. Im April
  3. Ich hatte einst ein schönes Vaterland
  4. Der Sänger
  5. Frühlingsgruss
  6. Frühling 
  7. Ich weil' in tiefer Einsamkeit 
  8. Mein Herz ist wie die dunkle Nacht
Song-album volume 2 (Schirmer 1883) can be purchased by Nabu Public Domain Reprints
  • Thou fairest vision of my soul = Du meiner Seele schönster Traum.
  • Lily blossom = Lilienblüthe.
  • Near thee = In deiner Nähe weil' ich noch
  • The poet = Der Sänger
  • The glaciers by moonlight = Die Gletscher leuchten im Mondenlicht
  • Thine image = Wenn ich dich seh'
  • When the spring-tide o'er the hills is seen = Wenn der Frühling auf die Berge steigt
  • The sun's bright beams = Die helle Sonne leuchtet. Summer evening
  • Sommerabend. I think of thee = Nähe des Geliebten
  • Sabbath rest = Sonntagsruhe
  • Pry thee, maiden = Sei nur ruhig, lieber Robin
  • My Lily = Meine Lilie
  • Ever with thee = Immer bei dir
  • Be thou still = Sei stille
  • Thy bright eyes = Die grossen, stillen Augen
  • Blue eyes = Blaue Augen
  • Lullaby = Schlummerlied
  • The nest = Das Nest
  • Cheerless morn = Trüber Morgen
  • Solitude = Ich weil' in tiefer Einsamkeit
  • Romance
  • Silence = Schweigsamkeit

Jean-Theodore Radoux (Liège 1835 - Liège 1911)

Radoux studied at the Conservatory in Liege under Joseph Daussoigne Méhul starting from 1845. He started off with counterpoint, piano and cello but soon turned to the Bassoon. He spent 4years in Paris during the 1850s and studied with Halévy. When he came back, he took on the position of bassoon professor at the Liège conservatory and in 1872 he was appointed director of the same institution. 

Art Songs (Non-Exhaustive List):

Extase (Victor Hugo) published in Liège: Maison Brahy
Fais dodo (berceuse orientale d'Angeline Tourquet) published in Liège: Maison Brahy
Rêverie (J. Dumoulin) published in Liège: Léopold Muraille, 1854
Berceuse (Auguste de Chatillon) published by Paris : Heu, 1870
Paroles du coeur (Rodolphe Massart) New York: G. Schirmer, 1904
Mélodies: pour chant & piano 2 volumes of 20 songs published by Paris: E. Heu, 1868 and 1875
Vingt mélodies pour chant & piano voix moyenne, published in Gand: V. et Ch. Gevaert et fils, 1875 Re-published in Huntsville, Texas: Recital Publications, 2009

  • Vieille guitare (Ivan Donckier)
  • Extase! (Victor Hugo)
  • Nadja (André Chaten)
  • L'oiseau bleu (Arsène Houssaye)
  • Rêvons (Adolphe Pelllier)
  • Aimons-nous follement! (Arsène Houssaye)
  • Léonie (anononimus)
  • Rose! (Henry Mürger)
  • Belle de nuit (Constant Dubos)
  • Au printemps (Schiller)
  • Le beau Loïs (Millevoye)
  • Adieux à Suzon (de Musset)
  • Il m'aimait tant (de Girardin)
  • Petit chérubin blond (Renier)
  • À une fleur (de Musset)
  • Soeur Maria (Baze)
  • Le spectre de la rose (Théophile Gautier)
  • L'étang d'aigues-belle (Arsène Houssaye)
  • Ma frégatte (Ponsard)
  • Fais dodo (Angeline Tourquet)

References:

  • http://www.svm.be/content/samuel-adolphe?display=biography&language=en- Anne-Marie Riessauw. "Samuel, Adolphe." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.libraries.rutgers.edu/subscriber/article/grove/music/24477 (accessed December 26, 2011).
  • -Anne-Marie Riessauw and Jean Hargot. "Gevaert, François-Auguste." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.libraries.rutgers.edu/subscriber/article/grove/music/11003 (accessed December 22, 2011).
  • - Gaynor G. Jones. "Lassen, Eduard." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.libraries.rutgers.edu/subscriber/article/grove/music/16059 (accessed December 26, 2011).
  • - John Trevitt and Joël-Marie Fauquet. "Franck, César." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.libraries.rutgers.edu/subscriber/article/grove/music/10121 (accessed December 26, 2011).
  • - Charles Leirens. Belgian Music. Belgian Information Center, New York, 1943. 
  • - Music in Belgium. Published in cooperation with the CeBeDem by A. Manteau, Brussels, 1964.
  • - Karolien Selhorst (translation: Jo Sneppe). "Adolphe Samuel". In Studiecentrum voor Vlaamse Muziek vzw online, http://www.svm.be/content/samuel-adolphe?display=biography&language=en(accessed December 27, 2011.
  • WorldCat: http://www.worldcat.org/.
  • Petrucci Library: http://www.google.be/search?q=Petrucci+Library&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a.
  • Bibliotheque Royale de Belgique (Brussels): http://www.kbr.be/.
  • Studiecentrum voor Vlaamse muziek: http://www.svm.be/.
  • William Waterhouse. "Radoux, Jean-Théodore." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.libraries.rutgers.edu/subscriber/article/grove/music/22807 (accessed January 21, 2012).